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hyperlink element (html)

Screen reader support level: partial (148/150)

Voice Control support level: supported

On this page

If the a element has an href attribute, then it represents a hyperlink (a hypertext anchor) labeled by its contents.

Expectations

What are expectations?

Screen Reader support by expectation

ExpectationJAWSNarratorNVDAOrcaTalkBackVoiceOver for iOSVoiceOver for macOS
MUST convey an appropriate rolesupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupported
MUST convey an appropriate namesupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupported
MUST convey the boundaries of the elementsupportedpartial (4/5)supportedpartial (4/5)supportedsupportedsupported
SHOULD provide shortcuts to jump to this rolesupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupported
MAY convey the visited statesupportednonesupportedsupportednonesupportedsupported

Voice Control support by expectation

ExpectationDragon Naturally SpeakingVoice Access for AndroidVoice Control for iOSVoice Control for MacOS
MUST convey an appropriate rolesupportedsupportednot applicablesupported
MUST convey an appropriate namesupportedsupportedsupportedsupported

Expectation: convey an appropriate role

Rationale: A screen reader user needs to know how they can interact with the element. Voice control software might use the role to help users activate controls that do not have a visible name.

Strength of these expectations for different types of assistive technologies:

  • Screen Readers: MUST
  • Voice Control: MUST
ATBrowserHas Support
Dragon Naturally SpeakingGoogle Chromesupported
JAWSGoogle Chromesupported
JAWSInternet Explorersupported
JAWSFirefox (desktop)supported
NarratorMicrosoft Edgesupported
NVDAGoogle Chromesupported
NVDAFirefox (desktop)supported
OrcaFirefox (desktop)supported
TalkBackGoogle Chrome (android)supported
Voice Access for AndroidGoogle Chrome (android)supported
Voice Control for iOSSafari (iOS)not applicable
Voice Control for MacOSSafari (macOS)supported
VoiceOver for iOSSafari (iOS)supported
VoiceOver for macOSSafari (macOS)supported

This expectation is referenced by 5 tests.

Tests that reference this expectation
Test nameScreen Reader supportVoice Control support
HTML links example 1 - A link by itselfsupportedsupported
HTML links example 2 - A link in a paragraphpartial (29/30)supported
HTML links example 3 - A link in a listsupportedsupported
HTML links example 4 - A visited linksupportedsupported
HTML links example 5 - A link that wraps many elementspartial (29/30)supported

Expectation: convey an appropriate name

Rationale: A screen reader user needs to know what to enter.

Strength of these expectations for different types of assistive technologies:

  • Screen Readers: MUST
  • Voice Control: MUST
ATBrowserHas Support
Dragon Naturally SpeakingGoogle Chromesupported
JAWSGoogle Chromesupported
JAWSInternet Explorersupported
JAWSFirefox (desktop)supported
NarratorMicrosoft Edgesupported
NVDAGoogle Chromesupported
NVDAFirefox (desktop)supported
OrcaFirefox (desktop)supported
TalkBackGoogle Chrome (android)supported
Voice Access for AndroidGoogle Chrome (android)supported
Voice Control for iOSSafari (iOS)supported
Voice Control for MacOSSafari (macOS)supported
VoiceOver for iOSSafari (iOS)supported
VoiceOver for macOSSafari (macOS)supported

This expectation is referenced by 5 tests.

Tests that reference this expectation
Test nameScreen Reader supportVoice Control support
HTML links example 1 - A link by itselfsupportedsupported
HTML links example 2 - A link in a paragraphpartial (29/30)supported
HTML links example 3 - A link in a listsupportedsupported
HTML links example 4 - A visited linksupportedsupported
HTML links example 5 - A link that wraps many elementspartial (29/30)supported

Expectation: convey the boundaries of the element

Rationale: A user needs to know when they enter and exit an element

Strength of these expectations for different types of assistive technologies:

  • Screen Readers: MUST
  • Voice Control: NA
ATBrowserHas Support
Dragon Naturally SpeakingGoogle Chromenot applicable
JAWSGoogle Chromesupported
JAWSInternet Explorersupported
JAWSFirefox (desktop)supported
NarratorMicrosoft Edgepartial (4/5)
NVDAGoogle Chromesupported
NVDAFirefox (desktop)supported
OrcaFirefox (desktop)partial (4/5)
TalkBackGoogle Chrome (android)supported
Voice Access for AndroidGoogle Chrome (android)not applicable
Voice Control for iOSSafari (iOS)not applicable
Voice Control for MacOSSafari (macOS)not applicable
VoiceOver for iOSSafari (iOS)supported
VoiceOver for macOSSafari (macOS)supported

This expectation is referenced by 5 tests.

Tests that reference this expectation
Test nameScreen Reader supportVoice Control support
HTML links example 1 - A link by itselfsupportedsupported
HTML links example 2 - A link in a paragraphpartial (29/30)supported
HTML links example 3 - A link in a listsupportedsupported
HTML links example 4 - A visited linksupportedsupported
HTML links example 5 - A link that wraps many elementspartial (29/30)supported

Expectation: provide shortcuts to jump to this role

Rationale: Screen reader users might want to quickly navigate to elements of this type.

Strength of these expectations for different types of assistive technologies:

  • Screen Readers: SHOULD
  • Voice Control: NA
ATBrowserHas Support
Dragon Naturally SpeakingGoogle Chromenot applicable
JAWSGoogle Chromesupported
JAWSInternet Explorersupported
JAWSFirefox (desktop)supported
NarratorMicrosoft Edgesupported
NVDAGoogle Chromesupported
NVDAFirefox (desktop)supported
OrcaFirefox (desktop)supported
TalkBackGoogle Chrome (android)supported
Voice Access for AndroidGoogle Chrome (android)not applicable
Voice Control for iOSSafari (iOS)not applicable
Voice Control for MacOSSafari (macOS)not applicable
VoiceOver for iOSSafari (iOS)supported
VoiceOver for macOSSafari (macOS)supported

This expectation is referenced by 5 tests.

Tests that reference this expectation
Test nameScreen Reader supportVoice Control support
HTML links example 1 - A link by itselfsupportedsupported
HTML links example 2 - A link in a paragraphpartial (29/30)supported
HTML links example 3 - A link in a listsupportedsupported
HTML links example 4 - A visited linksupportedsupported
HTML links example 5 - A link that wraps many elementspartial (29/30)supported

Expectation: convey the visited state

Rationale: A user might want to know that they have already visted the link

Strength of these expectations for different types of assistive technologies:

  • Screen Readers: MAY
  • Voice Control: NA
ATBrowserHas Support
Dragon Naturally SpeakingGoogle Chromenot applicable
JAWSGoogle Chromesupported
JAWSInternet Explorersupported
JAWSFirefox (desktop)supported
NarratorMicrosoft Edgenone
NVDAGoogle Chromesupported
NVDAFirefox (desktop)supported
OrcaFirefox (desktop)supported
TalkBackGoogle Chrome (android)none
Voice Access for AndroidGoogle Chrome (android)not applicable
Voice Control for iOSSafari (iOS)not applicable
Voice Control for MacOSSafari (macOS)not applicable
VoiceOver for iOSSafari (iOS)supported
VoiceOver for macOSSafari (macOS)supported

This expectation is referenced by 1 tests.

Tests that reference this expectation
Test nameScreen Reader supportVoice Control support
HTML links example 4 - A visited linksupportedsupported