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hyperlink element (html)

Screen reader support level: partial (146/150)

Voice Control support level: partial (44/45)

On this page

If the a element has an href attribute, then it represents a hyperlink (a hypertext anchor) labeled by its contents.

Expectations

What are expectations?

Screen Reader support by expectation

ExpectationJAWSNarratorNVDAOrcaTalkBackVoiceOver (iOS)VoiceOver (macOS)
MUST convey an appropriate rolesupportedsupportedsupportedpartial (4/5)supportedsupportedsupported
MUST convey an appropriate namesupportedsupportedsupportedpartial (4/5)supportedsupportedsupported
MUST convey the boundaries of the elementsupportedpartial (4/5)supportedpartial (4/5)supportedsupportedsupported
SHOULD provide shortcuts to jump to this rolesupportedsupportedsupportedpartial (4/5)supportedsupportedsupported
MAY convey the visited statepartialnonesupportedsupportednonesupportedsupported

Voice Control support by expectation

ExpectationDragon Naturally SpeakingVoice Access (Android)Voice Control (iOS)Voice Control (MacOS)Windows Speech Recognition
MUST convey an appropriate rolesupportedsupportednot applicablesupportedsupported
MUST convey an appropriate namesupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedpartial (4/5)

Expectation: convey an appropriate role

Rationale: A screen reader user needs to know how they can interact with the element. Voice control software might use the role to help users activate controls that do not have a visible name.

Strength of these expectations for different types of assistive technologies:

  • Screen Readers: MUST
  • Voice Control: MUST
Screen Reader support for 'MUST convey an appropriate role'
TestJAWSNarratorNVDAOrcaTalkBackVoiceOver (iOS)VoiceOver (macOS)
ChromeIEFirefoxEdgeChromeFirefoxFirefoxChromeSafariSafari
HTML links example 1 - A link by itselfsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedpartial (4/5)supportedsupportedsupported
HTML links example 2 - A link in a paragraphsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedpartial (4/5)supportedsupportedsupported
HTML links example 3 - A link in a listsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedpartial (4/5)supportedsupportedsupported
HTML links example 4 - A visited linksupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedpartial (4/5)supportedsupportedsupported
HTML links example 5 - A link that wraps many elementssupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedpartial (4/5)supportedsupportedsupported
Voice Control support for 'MUST convey an appropriate role'
TestDragon Naturally SpeakingVoice Access (Android)Voice Control (iOS)Voice Control (MacOS)Windows Speech Recognition
ChromeChromeSafariSafariChrome
HTML links example 1 - A link by itselfsupportedsupportednot applicablesupportedsupported
HTML links example 2 - A link in a paragraphsupportedsupportednot applicablesupportedsupported
HTML links example 3 - A link in a listsupportedsupportednot applicablesupportedsupported
HTML links example 4 - A visited linksupportedsupportednot applicablesupportedsupported
HTML links example 5 - A link that wraps many elementssupportedsupportednot applicablesupportedsupported

Expectation: convey an appropriate name

Rationale: A screen reader user needs to know what to enter.

Strength of these expectations for different types of assistive technologies:

  • Screen Readers: MUST
  • Voice Control: MUST
Screen Reader support for 'MUST convey an appropriate name'
TestJAWSNarratorNVDAOrcaTalkBackVoiceOver (iOS)VoiceOver (macOS)
ChromeIEFirefoxEdgeChromeFirefoxFirefoxChromeSafariSafari
HTML links example 1 - A link by itselfsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedpartial (4/5)supportedsupportedsupported
HTML links example 2 - A link in a paragraphsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedpartial (4/5)supportedsupportedsupported
HTML links example 3 - A link in a listsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedpartial (4/5)supportedsupportedsupported
HTML links example 4 - A visited linksupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedpartial (4/5)supportedsupportedsupported
HTML links example 5 - A link that wraps many elementssupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedpartial (4/5)supportedsupportedsupported
Voice Control support for 'MUST convey an appropriate name'
TestDragon Naturally SpeakingVoice Access (Android)Voice Control (iOS)Voice Control (MacOS)Windows Speech Recognition
ChromeChromeSafariSafariChrome
HTML links example 1 - A link by itselfsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedpartial (4/5)
HTML links example 2 - A link in a paragraphsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedpartial (4/5)
HTML links example 3 - A link in a listsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedpartial (4/5)
HTML links example 4 - A visited linksupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedpartial (4/5)
HTML links example 5 - A link that wraps many elementssupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedpartial (4/5)

Expectation: convey the boundaries of the element

Rationale: A user needs to know when they enter and exit an element

Strength of these expectations for different types of assistive technologies:

  • Screen Readers: MUST
  • Voice Control: NA
Screen Reader support for 'MUST convey the boundaries of the element'
TestJAWSNarratorNVDAOrcaTalkBackVoiceOver (iOS)VoiceOver (macOS)
ChromeIEFirefoxEdgeChromeFirefoxFirefoxChromeSafariSafari
HTML links example 1 - A link by itselfsupportedsupportedsupportedpartial (4/5)supportedsupportedpartial (4/5)supportedsupportedsupported
HTML links example 2 - A link in a paragraphsupportedsupportedsupportedpartial (4/5)supportedsupportedpartial (4/5)supportedsupportedsupported
HTML links example 3 - A link in a listsupportedsupportedsupportedpartial (4/5)supportedsupportedpartial (4/5)supportedsupportedsupported
HTML links example 4 - A visited linksupportedsupportedsupportedpartial (4/5)supportedsupportedpartial (4/5)supportedsupportedsupported
HTML links example 5 - A link that wraps many elementssupportedsupportedsupportedpartial (4/5)supportedsupportedpartial (4/5)supportedsupportedsupported

Expectation: provide shortcuts to jump to this role

Rationale: Screen reader users might want to quickly navigate to elements of this type.

Strength of these expectations for different types of assistive technologies:

  • Screen Readers: SHOULD
  • Voice Control: NA
Screen Reader support for 'SHOULD provide shortcuts to jump to this role'
TestJAWSNarratorNVDAOrcaTalkBackVoiceOver (iOS)VoiceOver (macOS)
ChromeIEFirefoxEdgeChromeFirefoxFirefoxChromeSafariSafari
HTML links example 1 - A link by itselfsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedpartial (4/5)supportedsupportedsupported
HTML links example 2 - A link in a paragraphsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedpartial (4/5)supportedsupportedsupported
HTML links example 3 - A link in a listsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedpartial (4/5)supportedsupportedsupported
HTML links example 4 - A visited linksupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedpartial (4/5)supportedsupportedsupported
HTML links example 5 - A link that wraps many elementssupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedpartial (4/5)supportedsupportedsupported

Expectation: convey the visited state

Rationale: A user might want to know that they have already visted the link

Strength of these expectations for different types of assistive technologies:

  • Screen Readers: MAY
  • Voice Control: NA
Screen Reader support for 'MAY convey the visited state'
TestJAWSNarratorNVDAOrcaTalkBackVoiceOver (iOS)VoiceOver (macOS)
ChromeIEFirefoxEdgeChromeFirefoxFirefoxChromeSafariSafari
HTML links example 4 - A visited linkpartialpartialpartialnonesupportedsupportedsupportednonesupportedsupported