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hyperlink element (html)

Support level: partial (196/199)

On this page

If the a element has an href attribute, then it represents a hyperlink (a hypertext anchor) labeled by its contents.

Expectations

Expectations are conditions that must be met for the feature to be considered as "supported". Only "MUST" expectations need to be met for minimal "support". "SHOULD" and "MAY" expectations indicates support that goes above and beyond. Note that there is not an explicit standard that dictates these expectations, and as such, they are likely opinionated. As such, a feature might not meet all "MUST" expectations but still be usable (potentially frustratingly so). Additionally, the assistive technology may provide many different commands to read, navigate, or otherwise interact with a feature. Only one command is required to pass for the expectation to be minimally supported.

Summary of support by expectation type

MUSTSHOULDMAY
partial (144/145)supportedpartial (7/9)

Summary of support by expectation and assistive technology

ExpectationDragon Naturally SpeakingJAWSNarratorNVDATalkBackVoiceOver for iOSVoiceOver for macOS
MUST convey the link rolesupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupported
MUST convey the name of the linksupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupported
MUST convey the boundaries of the linknot applicablesupportedpartial (4/5)supportedsupportedsupportedsupported
SHOULD provide shortcuts to jump to linksnot applicablesupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupportedsupported
MAY convey the visited statenot applicablesupportednonesupportednonesupportedsupported

The screen reader MUST convey the link role

Rationale: The user needs to know that the element is a link.

ATBrowserHas Support
Dragon Naturally SpeakingGoogle Chromesupported
JAWSGoogle Chromesupported
JAWSInternet Explorersupported
JAWSFirefox (desktop)supported
NarratorMicrosoft Edgesupported
NVDAGoogle Chromesupported
NVDAFirefox (desktop)supported
TalkBackGoogle Chrome (android)supported
VoiceOver for iOSSafari (iOS)supported
VoiceOver for macOSSafari (macOS)supported

This expectation is referenced by 5 tests.

Tests that reference this expectation
test namehas support
HTML links example 1 - A link by itselfsupported
HTML links example 2 - A link in a paragraphsupported
HTML links example 3 - A link in a listsupported
HTML links example 4 - A visited linkpartial (45/47)
HTML links example 5 - A link that wraps many elementspartial (37/38)

The screen reader MUST convey the name of the link

Rationale: The user needs to know where the link will take them.

ATBrowserHas Support
Dragon Naturally SpeakingGoogle Chromesupported
JAWSGoogle Chromesupported
JAWSInternet Explorersupported
JAWSFirefox (desktop)supported
NarratorMicrosoft Edgesupported
NVDAGoogle Chromesupported
NVDAFirefox (desktop)supported
TalkBackGoogle Chrome (android)supported
VoiceOver for iOSSafari (iOS)supported
VoiceOver for macOSSafari (macOS)supported

This expectation is referenced by 5 tests.

Tests that reference this expectation
test namehas support
HTML links example 1 - A link by itselfsupported
HTML links example 2 - A link in a paragraphsupported
HTML links example 3 - A link in a listsupported
HTML links example 4 - A visited linkpartial (45/47)
HTML links example 5 - A link that wraps many elementspartial (37/38)

The screen reader MUST convey the boundaries of the link

Rationale: The user needs to know where the link will take them.

ATBrowserHas Support
Dragon Naturally SpeakingGoogle Chromenot applicable
JAWSGoogle Chromesupported
JAWSInternet Explorersupported
JAWSFirefox (desktop)supported
NarratorMicrosoft Edgepartial (4/5)
NVDAGoogle Chromesupported
NVDAFirefox (desktop)supported
TalkBackGoogle Chrome (android)supported
VoiceOver for iOSSafari (iOS)supported
VoiceOver for macOSSafari (macOS)supported

This expectation is referenced by 5 tests.

Tests that reference this expectation
test namehas support
HTML links example 1 - A link by itselfsupported
HTML links example 2 - A link in a paragraphsupported
HTML links example 3 - A link in a listsupported
HTML links example 4 - A visited linkpartial (45/47)
HTML links example 5 - A link that wraps many elementspartial (37/38)

The screen reader SHOULD provide shortcuts to jump to links

Rationale: A user might want to skim the page for links

ATBrowserHas Support
Dragon Naturally SpeakingGoogle Chromenot applicable
JAWSGoogle Chromesupported
JAWSInternet Explorersupported
JAWSFirefox (desktop)supported
NarratorMicrosoft Edgesupported
NVDAGoogle Chromesupported
NVDAFirefox (desktop)supported
TalkBackGoogle Chrome (android)supported
VoiceOver for iOSSafari (iOS)supported
VoiceOver for macOSSafari (macOS)supported

This expectation is referenced by 5 tests.

Tests that reference this expectation
test namehas support
HTML links example 1 - A link by itselfsupported
HTML links example 2 - A link in a paragraphsupported
HTML links example 3 - A link in a listsupported
HTML links example 4 - A visited linkpartial (45/47)
HTML links example 5 - A link that wraps many elementspartial (37/38)

The screen reader MAY convey the visited state

Rationale: A user might want to know that they have already visted the link

ATBrowserHas Support
Dragon Naturally SpeakingGoogle Chromenot applicable
JAWSGoogle Chromesupported
JAWSInternet Explorersupported
JAWSFirefox (desktop)supported
NarratorMicrosoft Edgenone
NVDAGoogle Chromesupported
NVDAFirefox (desktop)supported
TalkBackGoogle Chrome (android)none
VoiceOver for iOSSafari (iOS)supported
VoiceOver for macOSSafari (macOS)supported

This expectation is referenced by 1 tests.

Tests that reference this expectation
test namehas support
HTML links example 4 - A visited linkpartial (45/47)